Australia whose name comes from the Latin word australis, meaning "southern", has a population of 23,480,939 and gained its independence in 1901.
The initial inhabitants of Australia traveled here from far-southeast Asia, and from the Torres Strait islands. From their initial settlements in the north some 70,000 years ago, their individual lifestyles and cultural traditions eventually spread across this vast uncharted land.
The first European exposure to Australia occurred in 1606, when the Dutch explorer, Willem Janszoon, sighted, then landed on the Cape York Peninsula. He found the area inhospitable and moved on. Regardless, adventurers and traders, aggressively searching for riches in the southern hemisphere, continued to sail through the northern coastal areas bordering a land the Dutch named New Holland.